The following analyses document recent climate conditions, their unusualness, and their long-term trends for a broader swath of the climate system, drawn from NOAA data, data from NCEI partners, and regional analysis from NCEI-affiliated Regional Climate Centers. Because most U.S. data are available sooner than international data, these reports are often released about the seventh of the following month.
- U.S. Analysis
A monthly overview of recent and current climate conditions across the United States. The report focuses on the latest complete month and draws from the other U.S. focused monthly reports (see below) and monitoring products. Analyses place climate conditions and significant events into historical perspective.
- Synoptic Discussion
The Synoptic Discussion provides a detailed discussion of the major atmospheric patterns that occurred during the month, and how these relate to the phenomena that cause weather such as the jet stream and the position of ridges and troughs. The discussion also relates these patterns to known drivers on climate variability time scales such as El Niño / La Niña and the Arctic Oscillation. The discussion is somewhat technical and assumes familiarity with meteorological terminology.
The Tornadoes report provides a large-scale overview of the occurrence of tornadoes across the country for a given month as well as a running analysis of the current tornado season. It draws heavily on data from and coordination with NOAA’s Storm Prediction Center. It is produced monthly during the most active tornado months (March through September) and may be produced during the less active months, if conditions warrant.
The U.S. Drought report compiles information from a wide array of drought indicators. Because drought is a complex process that affects different people in different ways, there are many ways to characterize drought and many metrics used by decision makers as “triggers” for drought action. Because of this, the drought report tends to be the most detailed and lengthy of all the Monthly Climate Reports.
This report provides large-scale information on the number and coverage of wildfires during the month and the fire-weather conditions that shaped outcomes. Selected significant wildfire events and episodes are briefly addressed when possible. This report is updated monthly.
- U.S. Snow and Ice
The U.S. Snow and Ice report broadly covers the state of snow cover and winter weather over the course of the cold season. Snow cover extent and snow depth measurements are compared to long-term averages and trends. Significant winter weather events are documented and placed into historical perspective. This report draws upon information from the Rutgers Snow Lab and other NOAA sources. It is updated October through April.
- Tropical Storms
This report puts the current Tropical Cyclone season into a climate perspective. Brief summaries of individual storms are provided. This report is not nearly as comprehensive or timely as those available from NOAA’s National Hurricane Center. It is updated monthly during tropical cyclone season (typically June through November, although storms sometimes occur outside these months).
- Residential Energy Demand Temperature Index
Residential energy consumption is known to be highly correlated with heating and cooling degree days. This index is based on population-weighted heating and cooling degree days, and it is a valuable tool for explaining year-to-year fluctuations in energy demand for residential heating and cooling.